Die Godgegewe rol van vroue in die kerk (1 Tim. 2:8-14),
en die aanbeweeg na 1 Tim. 2:15 in die VIDA debat
Hier is ds. Gerrie van Rhyn (GK Komatipoort) se verklarende toepaslike preek oor een van die tekste, wat sentraal staan in die VIDA debatte, kyk gerus hoe ds. Gerrie die volgende drie sake uitlig:
– die opdrag van die Here, v. 11,12
– die begronding/redes vir die opdrag, v. 13,14, en
– die beloning en oproep vir die gehoorsaamheid aan die opdrag (v. 15)
Met hierdie goeie preek as basis, wil ek graag meer fokus op die belangrikheid ook van 1 Tim. 2:15 in die huidige debatte oor VIDA (vroue in die besondere ampte), ‘n saak wat baie afgeskeep word, dus ook die positiewe omhelsing en groot waardering van ons susters se roeping en taak in God se Koninkryk: wat leer die Skrif daaroor?
Ek het al op vorige GKSA sinodes vermeld, ons was en is al so lank besig gewees met v. 11-14, en moes al lankal baie meer afsonderlik en saam geleer het oor 1 Tim. 2:15 en die volle lering en implikasies en toepassings daarvan ook op ons roeping in ons huwelike, gesin en gemeentes.
Ek plaas vier verklarings hier onder, waarbinne ek meen die gereformeerde gelowige en kerke hul kan vind volgens die Skrif.
Mag die Here ons help om aan te beweeg, nou dat ons opnuut deur verskillende sinodes besluit het volgens die Skrif (vanaf ten minste 1988 tot 2018), dat susters mag nie as ouderlinge en predikante dien nie, en dat ons opnuut moet verder reformeer oor die rol van ons susters in sy Koninkryk (saam ons manne) in die Here, tot lof van sy Naam en die opbou van sy kerk.
In die preek vermeld ds. van Rhyn van die groot skade wat veroorsaak word as vroue nie volgens hul skeppingsordelike en in Christus herstelde take en rolle dien in die kerk en koninkryk nie, wat dan nie tot Gods eer ook is nie. Deel van die probleem is dat die Bybelse leer oor vrou wees en haar rol en take deur beide radikaal-humanistiese feministe, maar ongelukkig ook kerklik-evangeliese ‘gematigde’ feministe verdraai word.
Daarom is opnuut nederige bybelse studie daaroor nodig wat aandagtig na die geheel van die Skrif luister, veral na die volle wonderlike troos en bemoedigende oproep van Paulus in 1 Tim. 2:15, wat vroue in navolging van die Skrif, eerbiedig het as mede-arbeiders, met ‘n besondere uniekheid en verskillende rolle en take, in die koninkryk van God.
Die kerk en koninkryk van Christus is nie ‘n manne- vroue- of kindergesentreerde koninkryk of wêreld nie, dit is God se wêreld en al die lof aan Hom, ons moet Godgesentreerd wees (Ps. 24:1; Rom. 11:36; 1 Kor. 10:31; Kol. 3:17,23). Die koninkryk van God het naby gekom, soek allereers die Koninkryk van God (Matt. 6:33), waarbinne en waarvolgens man, vrou en kind, huwelik en ongetroudes, ens. hul onderskeie take, roepinge en rolle het om te vervul, tot lof van sy Naam en die heil van die naaste.
RJ Rushdoony stel die wesentlik belangrik rol van die gelowige vrou, saam haar man (en nie in sondige stryd met mekaar soos die feminisme dit wil hê nie), as volg:
“Man is responsible to God for his use of the earth, and must, as a faithful governor, discharge his calling only in terms of his Sovereign’s royal decree or word. His calling confers also on him an authority by delegation. To man is given authority by God over his household and over the earth.
In the Marxist scheme, the transfer of authority from the family to the state makes any talk of the family as an institution ridiculous. The family is to all practical intent abolished whenever the state determines the education, vocation, religion, and the discipline of the child. The only function remaining then to the parents is procreation, and, by means of birth control regulations, this, too, is subject now to a diminishing role.
The family in such a society is simply a relic of the old order, maintaining itself only surreptitiously and illegally, and subject at all times to the intervening authority of the state. In all modern societies, the transfer of authority from the family to the state has been accomplished in varying degrees.
In the Biblical perspective, the authority of the family is basic to society, and it is a God-
centered authority. Hence the common division of the commandment into two tables, or two sides, of ﬁve each, with the ﬁfth commandment placed alongside those relating to man’s duty to God. The meaning of the family is thus not to be sought in procreation but in a God-centered authority and responsibility in terms of man’s calling to subdue the earth and to exercise dominion over it.
The function of the woman in this aspect of God’s law order is to be a helpmeet to man in the exercise of his dominion and authority. She provides companionship in his calling (Gen. 2:18), so that there is a community in authority, with the clear preeminence being the man’s. Man’s sin is to attempt to usurp God’s authority, and woman’s sin is to attempt to usurp man’s authority, and both attempts are a deadly futility.
Eve exercised leadership in submitting to the temptation; she led Adam rather than being led; Adam succumbed to the desire to be as God (Gen.3:5), while acting as less than a man in submitting to Eve’s leadership. But the authority of the woman as helpmeet is no less real than that of a prime minister to a king; the prime minister is not a slave because he is not king, nor is the woman a slave because she is not a man.
The description of a virtuous woman, or a godly wife, in Proverbs 31:10-31 is not of a helpless slave nor of a pretty parasite, but rather of a very competent wife, manager, businesswoman, and mother—a person of real authority.
The key, therefore, to the Biblical doctrine of the family is to be found in the fact of its central authority, and the meaning thereof.” (Institutes of Biblical Law, volume 1 (p. 167))
Hieronder is die vier verklarings van spesifiek 1 Tim. 2:15 (sien veral Hendriksen se ‘The Dignity of Women in the Pauline Epistles‘), wat in wese saamstem dat God se reddingswerk God se skeppingsorde red, handhaaf en heilig, en nie vernietig nie. In wese stem hul wel ooreen oor die besondere unieke roeping, taak en rolle van vroue, en dat hul nie mag dien as predikante en/of ouderlinge nie, op grond van God se bevel van 1 Tim. 2:11,12 asook die positiewe opdrag van 1 Tim. 2:15. Daar is wel verskille oor die presiese betekenis van die frase ‘deur kinders te baar’ of ‘deur ‘n Kind te kry’ (beklemtonings bygevoeg) :
“Deur hierdie voorskrifte in verband met die plek en optrede van die vrou by die erediens wil Paulus nie te kenne gee dat sy minderwaardig is nie. Christus het die vrou immers bevry uit die posisie van minderwaardigheid wat sy in die destydse Joodse en Griekse samelewing gehad het. Ook in hierdie verband het Hy alles nuut gemaak en die vrou bevry, geadel en verheerlik.
Daarom moet ook die huwelik nie verbied word soos die dwaalleraars doen nie (1 Tim. 4:3), maar in hoë eer gehou word, en die moederskap aanvaar word as ’n deur van redding. Die vloekuitspraak van Gen. 3:16 waarvolgens die vrou met smart moet kinders baar, word ’n woord van genade omdat deur die moederskap die Verlosser in die wêreld gekom het. Deur die moederskap het daar dus redding gekom, en voortaan vul die moederskap die lewe van die vrou met ’n eie heerlikheid.
Deur die moederskap word sy “gered”. Die bedoeling is nie dat sy vir die ewige lewe gered word deur kinders in die wêreld te bring nie. Alleen die geloof in Christus bring redding in daardie sin. Buitendien praat Paulus van Christenvroue wat “bly in geloof en liefde en heiligmaking”, d.w.s. wat reeds die saligheid in Christus gevind het. Daarom is die “redding” waarvan hy hier praat, die bevryding uit die posisie van minderwaardigheid. Deur die moederskap bereik sy die volle heerlikheid wat sy as vrou kan beleef.
Haar redding lê nie daarin dat sy met die man wedywer om op die man se terrein aan hom gelyk te word nie, maar dat sy op haar eie terrein die bedoeling van die Skepper met die vrou tot verwesenliking bring. Dit bring vir haar ’n geluksaligheid wat sy as redding beleef in haar posisie van onderdanigheid aan die man.
Maar dan moet sy ook getrou bly en volhard in die geloof en die liefde en die heiligmaking. Hieraan word toegevoeg die “ingetoënheid” wat reeds in v.9 hierbo ter sprake was. Daar moet steeds ’n beteueling wees van sinlike luste en sondige ydelheid. Deur selfbeheersing, deur geloof, liefde en heiligmaking moet die vrou die sfeer skep waarin sy baar hoogste roeping, die van moederskap vervul, en haar grootste vreugde vind, haar geluksaligheid.
Bron: Groenewald, E. P. (1977). Die pastorale briewe (1 Tim. 2:15). N.G. Kerk-Uitgewers. (
But she shall be saved. The weakness of the sex renders women more suspicious and timid, and the preceding statement might greatly terrify and alarm the strongest minds. For these reasons he modifies what he had said by adding a consolation; for the Spirit of God does not accuse or reproach us, in order to triumph over us, When we are covered with shame, but, when we have been cast down, immediately raises us up. It might have the effect (as I have already said) of striking terror into the minds of women, when they were informed that the destruction of the whole human race was attributed to them; for what will be this condemnation? especially when their subjection, as a testimony of the wrath of God, is constantly placed before their eyes.
Accordingly, Paul, in order to comfort them and render their condition tolerable, informs them that they continue to enjoy the hope of salvation, though they suffer a temporal punishment. It is proper to observe that the good effect of this consolation is twofold. First, by the hope of salvation held out to them, they are prevented from falling into despair through alarm at the mention of their guilt. Secondly, they become accustomed to endure calmly and patiently the necessity of servitude, so as to submit willingly to their husbands, when they are informed that this kind of obedience is both profitable to themselves and acceptable to God.
If this passage be tortured, as Papists are wont to do, to support the righteousness of works, the answer is easy. The Apostle does not argue here about the cause of salvation, and therefore we cannot and must not infer from these words what works deserve; but they only shew in what way God conducts us to salvation, to which he has appointed us through his grace.
Through child-bearing. To censorious men it might appear absurd, for an Apostle of Christ not only to exhort women to give attention to the birth of offspring, but to press this work as religious and holy to such an extent as to represent it in the light of the means of procuring salvation. Nay, we even see with what reproaches the conjugal bed has been slandered by hypocrites, who wished to be thought more holy than all other men. But there is no difficulty in replying to these sneers of the ungodly.
First, here the Apostle does not speak merely about having children, but about enduring all the distresses, which are manifold and severe, both in the birth and in the rearing of children.
Secondly, whatever hypocrites or wise men of the world may think of it, when a woman, considering to what she has been called, submits to the condition which God has assigned to her, and does not refuse to endure the pains, or rather the fearful anguish, of parturition, or anxiety about her offspring, or anything else that belongs to her duty, God values this obedience more highly than if, in some other manner, she made a great display of heroic virtues, while she refused to obey the calling of God. To this must be added, that no consolation could be more appropriate or more efficacious then to shew that the very means (so to speak) of procuring salvation are found in the punishment itself.
If they continue in faith. In consequence of the old translation having used the expression, “the birth of children,” it has been commonly thought that this clause refers to the children. But the term used by Paul to denote “child-bearing” is a single word, τεκνογονία, and therefore it must refer to the women. As to the verb being plural, and the noun singular, this involves no difficulty; for an indefinite noun, at least when it denotes a multitude, has the force of a collective noun, and therefore easily admits a change from the singular to the plural number.
Besides, that he might not represent all the virtue of women as included in the duties of marriage, immediately afterwards he adds greater virtues, in which it is proper that godly women should excel, that they may differ from irreligious women. Even: “child — bearing” is obedience acceptable to God, only so far as it proceeds from faith and love. To these two he adds sanctification, which includes all the purity of life which becomes Christian women. Lastly follows sobriety, which he formerly mentioned, while he was speaking about dress; but now he extends it more widely to the other parts of life.
Bron: Calvin, J. (1998). 1 Timothy (electronic ed., 1 Tim. 2:15). Ages Software.
She will, however, be saved by way of her child-bearing. Not by way of preaching to adults (see on verse 12) but by way of bearing children does a woman attain to real happiness, to salvation, with stress on its positive aspect (see on I Tim. 1:15). The path that leads to salvation is ever that of obedience to God’s ordinances. It is his will that the woman should influence mankind “from the bottom up” (that is, by way of the child), not “from the top down” (that is, not by way of the man). She must choose to do that for which by God’s creation-ordinance she is naturally equipped, both physically and spiritually. She must reach her goal by way of (διά) her child-bearing.
Again, not by way of exercising dominion over men but by way of submission does a woman reach the state of true freedom and blessedness (see on verses 11 and 12). Now the curse which was pronounced upon Eve included two elements: a. submission to her (now sinful) husband, and b. painful child-bearing (mentioned in reverse order in Gen. 3:16). It is therefore not at all surprising that Paul, thoroughly at home in The Law and writing by inspiration, immediately mentions child-bearing after having mentioned submission. He sees what Adam also saw. Paul, however, sees it more clearly.
Adam already perceived that by God’s grace the curse of child-bearing (think of its painful character) was changed into a blessing (Gen. 3:20). Because of the prospect of child-bearing Adam’s wife was named Eve, that is “Life” (the mother of all living). Paul takes up this thought and develops it. Child-bearing will mean salvation for the Christian mother, for what Christian mother does not experience inner delight, joy, blessing, and glory in seeing the image of her Savior reflected in little ones who belong to him? In bearing children (here the noun: child-bearing; the verb is used in I Tim. 5:14) the Christian mother by faith in God’s covenant promise (Gen. 17:7; Acts 2:38, 39) looks forward to all the joys of Christian motherhood unto the glory of God. This to her is salvation.*
When Paul says she (in the clause “She … will be saved by her child-bearing”), he is thinking of “the woman” of verse 14. This referred first of all to Eve, but then also to any Christian mother taken as a representative of the entire class to which she belongs. Hence, it is not strange that the apostle now shifts from the singular to the plural (from “she” to “they”) as he continues:
if they continue in faith and love and sanctification along with good sense. Not child-bearing as such procures salvation. The love of God shed abroad in the heart, the peace which passes all understanding, the delight which is experienced when one submits to God’s ordinances, the joys of truly Christian motherhood, all these are experienced only if women “continue in faith,” etc. Faith comes first. It is the product of God’s sovereign grace.
To be truly blessed, women must continue in it. The matter of salvation is regarded here from the side not of God but of the human individual. It is true, indeed, that once a woman (or a man, but the present passage deals with women) is truly saved, she remains saved forever; yet, God does not keep a woman on the way of salvation without exertion, diligence, and watchfulness on her part. The strength thus to persevere in the faith is ever from God, from him alone (see also N.T.C. on John, Vol. II, p. 299).
The nouns used in the present passage have all been explained. For faith and love see on I Tim. 1:5. For sanctification (the daily dying unto sin and being renewed unto holiness; here perhaps with special emphasis on active opposition to all immorality or uncleanness in thought and act, sins so often associated with the married state) see N.T.C. on I Thess. 4:3–8. And for good sense see on I Tim. 2:9. The complete thought is therefore as follows: if the women members of the church will abide in faith and love and sanctification, meanwhile exercising proper self-control and reserve, they will find their joy and salvation in bearing children to God’s glory, yes, in all the duties and delights of Christian motherhood.
… When the congregation assembles for public worship, all must be remembered in prayer, that is, rulers as well as subjects, for:
- salvation is intended “for all,” regardless of rank, station, race, or nation;
- there is but one God and one Mediator, not one God and one Mediator for this group, and one for that group;
- there is but one ransom;
- hence Paul had been appointed to be a teacher of Gentiles, in order that not only Jews but also Gentiles might come to accept the gospel by a living faith.
At public worship the men — not the women — should stand with uplifted hands, offering prayer aloud. For such praying there should be adequate preparation, so that the heart may not be filled with malice against a brother or with predisposition to evil.
The women, too, must prepare themselves adequately when they are about to go to church. They must avoid all extravagance in outward adornment, bearing in mind that their true adornment is the doing of good works. In the place of public worship women should realize that their duty is to learn, not to teach; to obey, not to rule; to follow, not to lead. If they abide in faith and love and sanctification, meanwhile exercising proper self-control and reserve, they will find their joy and salvation in the delights of Christian motherhood. (To be sure, Priscilla — as well as Aquila — taught Apollos, but not from the pulpit. Read Acts 18:26.)
This teaching regarding the place which women should occupy when the congregation gathers for worship is based not on any temporary condition but on Adam’s priority in creation and Eve’s priority in transgression.
In this connection it should be pointed out that though the apostle definitely ascribes to women a different position than to men, he does not regard their role in church-affairs to be in any way less important than that filled by men.
The Dignity of Women in the Pauline Epistles
(1) He mentions with favor the following, to many of whom he sends greetings: Phoebe, Prisca, “Mary,” Tryphena and Tryphosa, Persis, Julia, the sister of Nereus, Apphia, Lois and Eunice (see Romans 16; Phil. 4; II Tim. 1; Philemon).
(2) He employs women in the service of the gospel (Rom. 16:1–3; Phil. 4:3); specifically, the older widows (I Tim. 5:9, 10), deacons’ assistants (I Tim. 3:11), women who are able to support others (I Tim. 5:16). Cf. what the book of Acts says with reference to Lydia (16:14, 40), Dorcas (9:36), Mary, the mother of John (12:2), and the daughters of Philip (21:8, 9).
What a difference between the status of women in the early church, on the one hand, and in the Qumran sect, described in the Dead Sea Scrolls, on the other. In the church women were given an honorable status. In the Qumran sect women played hardly any part. See Millar Burrows, op. cit., pp. 233, 244 and 333.
(3) He emphasizes that “in Christ” there is neither male nor female (Gal. 3:28). In relation to him there is perfect equality.
(4) He recommends marriage, even for widows, and he praises the joys of Christian wifehood and motherhood (I Cor. 7:39; I Tim. 5:14; then I Tim. 2:15; 4:3). There are circumstances, however, under which Paul considers it better “not to marry” (I Cor. 7:26, 27).
(5) Anyone who maintains that Paul holds women in low esteem should read the following passages. If they are honestly interpreted, one will have to admit that in many ways no man is ever able to bestow upon a woman the full honor which according to Paul’s teaching should be bestowed upon her:
“For the unbelieving husband is sanctified through his wife, and the unbelieving wife is sanctified through her husband” (I Cor. 7:14).
“The wife does not have power over her own body, but the husband has; and similarly, the husband has no power over his own body, but the wife has” (I Cor. 7:4).
“The woman is man’s glory” (I Cor. 11:7).
“In the Lord neither is woman without (the) man, nor is man without (the) woman” (I Cor. 11:11).
“Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church, and gave himself up for it; that he might sanctify it … Even so ought husbands also to love their own wives as their own bodies.… Let each one of you love his wife as he loves himself; and let the wife see to it that she respects her husband” (Eph. 5:25–33).
Paul’s practical attitude to women kingdom-workers is expressed in this beautiful, concise order: “HELP THESE WOMEN” (Phil. 4:3).
*I reject the following explanations:
(1) “She will be saved by means of The Childbirth” (that is, the Birth of Christ).
(2) “She will come safely through child-birth.”
Objection: both of these ideas are foreign to the present context. In addition, Number (2) assigns a meaning to the verb which in the present context is not warranted. See the verb in 1:15 and 2:4.
(3) “By means of bearing children she will be rescued from everlasting damnation and will merit everlasting glory.”
Objection: this idea of making child-bearing a meritorious act strikes at the very heart of Paul’s theology as expressed both in the Pastorals and elsewhere (see pp. 18, 19). Besides, the immediately following words (“… if they continue in faith,” etc., suffice to rule it out).”
George W. Knight
Ek plaas ook ‘n deel van Knight se verklaring van 1 Tim. 2:15 hier, omdat hy ‘n sterk saak uitmaak dat die redding deur kinders te baar wys op Christus, raadpleeg gerus sy goeie maar tegniese kommentaar vir alles wat hy oor die vers skryf, ek gee net ‘n aanhaling:
“The most likely understanding of this verse is that it refers to spiritual salvation through the birth of the Messiah. Some commentators (Alford, Bernard, Guthrie, Ward) have rejected this view without giving adequate reasons. But good reasons exist for adopting it (so Ellicott; Lock; H. von Soden; Wohlenberg; Huizenga, “Women”; cf. RV, RSV margin, NEB margin; with undue emphasis on Mary, Ignatius, Eph. 19; Irenaeus, Haer. 5.19; Justin, Dial. 100).
First, the context: V. 14 summarizes the woman’s fall into sin described in Genesis 3. The one about whom it speaks is “the woman”, Eve, and this one is the natural subject to be understood in v. 15, “she will be saved” = the woman, Eve, will be saved. From what does Eve need to be saved (in both 1 Timothy 2 and Genesis 3)? From the last words preceding this verse. In the protevangelium of Gn. 3:15, which speaks of “her seed” and says “He [the seed] shall bruise you [the serpent = Satan] on the head,” salvation is announced in terms of a child to be borne by the woman.
Furthermore, this understanding fits the flow of Paul’s argument. He points out that Eve brought herself into transgression by abandoning her role and taking on that of the man. But by fulfilling her role, difficult as it may be as a result of sin (Gn. 3:16), she gives birth to the Messiah, and thereby “she” (fulfilled, of course, in Mary; cf. Gal. 4:4) brings salvation into the world. The conditional clause signifies that the previous statement is true only when conditions are met, and understood as referring to spiritual salvation, would seem to be the only understanding that fulfills that requirement. Thus deliverance from transgression comes to those who have a true and sincere faith, which points to the usual correlation between salvation and faith in Paul and the attendant and abiding manifestation of faith in a godly life (cf. Romans 6 and 8).
There is thus a transition from Eve back to women in general; in this way the passage serves to show women the importance of their role and of carrying it out in an obedient way, the note on which the passage ends (cf. Mary’s words in Lk. 1:38).”
Bron: The Pastoral Epistles: A Commentary on the Greek Text, 1992, p. 144-149.
Sien ook hierdie verdere artikel van GW Knight wat in Afrikaans vertaal is:
Die rol van vroue in die kerk: Mag vroue leer en regeer oor mans in die kerk van Christus?
My eie artikel oor die onderwerp: Die vrou in God se Koninkryk – drie standpunte
Calvyn se preke oor 1 Tim. 2:9-15